Activity

Report on a Presentation at the 2015 1st Workshop of the Japan Society for Educational Technology (JSET): Study Support Environment and Data Analysis/General
"The Effect of Question Methods in Quizzes Using Smartphones on Percentage of Correct Answers and Response Time"

On February 28, 2015, I participated in a workshop of the Japan Society for Educational Technology held at Kyushu University (Hakozaki Campus). I delivered a presentation titled "The Effect of Question Methods in Quizzes Using Smartphones on Percentage of Correct Answers and Response Time."

 

To provide the background of this research, there is a need to improve the quality of information education classes given at universities due to changes that occur yearly in college students' information skills. From the viewpoint of faculty development, the improvement of classes is required in order to promote learning outside class time at universities and better help students to reinforce their knowledge. To achieve these goals, with a focus on mobile learning (m-learning), I have conducted research on how quizzes can best accommodate college students’ test approach-avoidance tendencies toward testing.

 

According to my previous research, correct answer rates on quizzes were higher when all questions were displayed on one screen than when the quiz was conducted in question-and-answer style. Though I assumed that quiz takers could better understand the context of questions when all questions were displayed at once, this finding required further clarification.

 

This research therefore focused on using smartphones as m-learning systems at a university and established an experimental environment for delivering quizzes outside class time using smartphones and conducting quizzes that students can take independently. I prepared a quiz that included both multiple-choice and fill-in-the-blank questions (15 questions total) and took the context of these questions into consideration. My purpose was to identify differences in correct answer rate and answering time when all questions were displayed together compared with when the quiz adopted a question-and-answer style. The research was conducted from the standpoint of approach-avoidance tendencies toward testing.

 

The sample for this research consisted of 60 college students, each of whom answered both multiple-choice and fill-in-the-blank questions (15 questions total) using a smartphone. The students were divided into two groups: one in which all questions were displayed together (with context, 30 students) and the other with questions presented in question-and-answer style (with context, 30 students). Previous studies have suggested that in order to help students to reinforce their knowledge, it is important to focus on their attitudes toward testing (e.g., approach-avoidance tendencies). I therefore also analyzed students' approach-avoidance tendencies toward testing as done in previous studies.

 

I next performed a comparative analysis of correct answer rate and answering time by questioning method and approach-avoidance tendencies toward testing. The findings are as follows:

 

- Since the correct answer rate of students with high approach tendency was significantly high, it is possible that correct answer rate affects the level of approach tendencies.

 

- Results indicated that students with low approach and high avoidance tendencies showed significantly higher correct answer rates on quizzes conducted in question-and-answer style than when all questions were displayed together. Therefore, it is possible that on quizzes that take the context of questions into consideration, these students show higher correct answer rates when the quiz is conducted in question-and-answer style than when all questions are displayed.

 

- There was no difference in answering time among different questioning methods and approach-avoidance tendencies toward testing.

 

- There was no significant difference in answering time. However, the time spent by students considered to have the most positive attitude toward testing, or who have high approach and low avoidance tendencies, was 80 seconds less when all questions were displayed than when the quiz is conducted in question-and-answer style. In addition, when it is question-and-answer style, there was a difference of more than 100 seconds between the maximum and minimum averages of answering time spent by each approach-avoidance tendency group. Therefore, to continue using the question-and-answer style, continuous discussion is needed that focuses on approach-avoidance tendencies toward testing. 

 

To extend this research, future tasks will be 1) to conduct a relative analysis of subjective data, such as motivation for taking quizzes, in addition to objective data, such as correct answer rate and answering time on quizzes, gained from this study; 2) to conduct a comparative analysis of results gained from this study and the results of quizzes taken on smartphones or tablets that do not take the context of questions into consideration.

 

In closing, I would like to extend my sincere appreciation to several professors who gave me their valuable advice at the workshop. 

                                          

(Takeshi Kitazawa, CRET Researcher)

 


Takeshi Kitazawa

CRET Researcher / Associate Professor of Department of Technology and Information Science, Tokyo Gakugei University

Hobbies: Traveling, swimming, and taking a walk around town

Research topic: I conduct research on the educational effects of using ICT, focusing particularly on learners’ motivation.

dissertation

Reasearch label
2015-03-02

Exploring the potentials of language learning with a MOOC

Kanji Akahori

Yayoi Anzai

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